The TOP 10 Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies


not enough of these

Changes in the way food is grown and animals are raised can have a negative effect on the quality of food available.

Your body’s ability to absorb Nutrients is also impacted by age, genetics and health conditions.

The combination of these 2 issues can often lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies that you don’t even realize until it takes a toll on your health.

No. 1: Vitamin D

The Harvard School of Public Health suggests an estimated 1 billion people worldwide have low vitamin D levels, with deficiencies noted across all age and ethnic groups. You are at risk of missing out on vitamin D from natural sun exposure if you spend most of your time indoors, use topical sunscreens or wear long clothing for religious reasons.

If for whatever reason you cannot get outdoors, or not frequently enough to receive sufficient UV exposure, consider taking an oral vitamin D3 supplement along with vitamin K2 and magnesium. The only way to determine your ideal maintenance dose of vitamin D is by measuring your blood level. As a general guideline, vitamin D experts recommend 4,000 IUs per day for adults, but that level applies only if you are already in the therapeutic range. If your levels are low, you may need to start with 8,000 IUs or more per day.

No. 2: Omega-3s

If you regularly consume fast food and other highly processed foods, you probably overconsume inflammatory omega-6 fats. Such high consumption of omega-6s very likely means you may not be consuming enough of the healthier omega-3 fats. Processed foods — everything from frozen meals to salad dressings — are generally loaded with omega-6s, due to the vegetable oils used to make them.

Check labels carefully and do your best to avoid products containing corn, cottonseed, soybean, safflower and sunflower oils. If you are a regular consumer of fast food, be advised most of it is prepared with these same oils. Your recommended omega-6 to omega-3 balance should be close to a 1-to-1 ratio. However, because omega-6s are overabundant in the typical American diet, your ratio may be around 20-to-1, or as high as 50-to-1! It all depends on your eating habits.

Very often, when omega-6s predominate your diet, you will almost always suffer from inflammation and higher production of body fat. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, obesity and premature are all diseases that stem from an overabundance of inflammation in the body.

Omega-3s are anti-inflammatory and vital for supporting your brain function, joints, skin and vision, as well as your heart. They are

derived from both plant and animal sources:

  • Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA): found in plant sources such as chia, flaxseeds, hemp and walnuts
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): found in animal sources such as anchovies, salmon and sardines, as well as fish oil supplements; alternatives to fish oil include algae and my personal favorite, krill oil
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): also found in animal sources such as fish and fish oil, because wherever you find DHA, EPA is also there

No. 3: Magnesium

Because magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in your body, a deficiency can wreak havoc on your health. The fact researchers have detected more than 3,750 magnesium-binding sites on human proteins should give you a sense of how important this mineral is for your body’s optimal functioning. Your body needs magnesium for:

  • Activating muscles and nerves
  • Creating energy in your body by activating adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • Helping digest proteins, carbohydrates and fats
  • Serving as a building block for RNA and DNA synthesis
  • Acting as a precursor for neurotransmitters like serotonin

Dietary sources of magnesium include avocados, Brazil nuts, brown rice, cashews, dark leafy greens like spinach and Swiss chard, oily fish, raw cacao, seaweed and seeds. Since there is no simple routine blood test to determine your magnesium level, it is best to get a magnesium RBC test, while also carefully evaluating and tracking your symptoms.

No. 4: Iodine

Iodine is an essential mineral found in every one of your organs and tissues. Your body needs iodine for normal thyroid function, including the production of thyroid hormones, which support brain development, bone maintenance, growth and metabolism. Nearly one-third of the world’s population is iodine deficient. Severe iodine deficiency can affect brain function. The most common symptoms you are not getting enough iodine include:

  • Dry mouth, dry skin and lack of sweating
  • Enlarged thyroid gland, also known as goiter, which contributes to a variety of cancers, including esophageal, breast, ovarian and thyroid
  • Increased heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weight gain

Dietary sources of iodine include eggs, fish, raw milk, spirulina and sea vegetables such as kelp, kombu, nori and wakame. If you take an iodine supplement, be aware of the potentially serious risks associated with taking too much iodine.

No. 5: Zinc

While you may think about it mainly during cold and flu season, zinc is an essential mineral found throughout your organs, tissues and bodily fluids. Moreover, after iron, zinc is the second most abundant trace mineral in your body. Because zinc is vital to many biological processes, you may not realize your body does not store zinc. Instead, you must intake it daily through the foods you eat or a high-quality supplement. Zinc supports your body’s critical processes such as:

  •  Blood clotting
  •  Immune function
  • Smell, taste and vision
  • Cell division
  • Thyroid health
  •  Wound healing

At least 2 billion people worldwide are thought to be zinc deficient, including about 12 percent of the U.S. population and as much as 40 percent of the elderly. Part of the deficit likely results from soil depletion due to conventional farming methods, as well as the use of toxic pesticides such as Roundup. Beyond the soil concerns, many simply do not eat enough zinc-rich foods, the mineral is often poorly absorbed, levels are infrequently checked and testing methods are often inaccurate.

Dietary sources of zinc include dairy products, nuts, red meat and seafood. Plant sources such as asparagus, beans, green peas and spinach also contain zinc, but it is more easily absorbed from meat and animal proteins.

Even if you consider yourself to be a healthy person, you may not be eating enough zinc-rich foods on a daily basis to achieve optimal levels of this essential nutrient. If you choose to use a supplement, make sure it’s from a reputable company using best-practice, quality assurance methods. Independent verification of the raw materials is vital to confirm quality and assure it is free of lead and other heavy metals. The supplement should contain several different types of zinc, such as gluconate, citrate and chelate. Unless your clinician recommends otherwise, don’t go above 40 mg per day.

No. 6: Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is known as the energy vitamin, and you need it for blood formation, DNA synthesis, energy production and myelin formation. You may be deficient in vitamin B12 if you are not eating enough of the foods containing it, or your body lacks the ability to absorb it properly.

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, nearly 40 percent of the American population may have marginal vitamin B12 status not low enough to qualify as deficiency, but low enough to where certain neurological symptoms may start to appear. Warning signs of a B12 deficiency are slow to appear, so you may be quite deficient by the time you recognize the symptoms, which include:


  • Apathy
  • Memory problems and/or “mental fog”
  • Muscle weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Mood swings
  • Tingling in the extremities

Vitamin B12 is present in its natural form only in animal sources of food, such as:

  • Grass fed beef and beef liver
  • Lamb
  • Venison
  • Organic pastured eggs and poultry
  • Seafood such as salmon, scallops, shrimp and snapper

If you are a strict vegetarian or vegan, you are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. While you can get some B12 from coconut oil, fortified coconut milk and nutritional yeast, you may need to take a daily supplement. Chronic long-term B12 deficiency can lead to serious conditions such as dementia, depression and fertility problems.

No. 7: Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant designed to combat inflammation and make red blood cells. It also helps your body use vitamin K, which is important for heart health. Six billion people worldwide and 75 to 90 percent of Americans are deficient in vitamin E. If you are among them, you are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, cognitive deterioration and immune dysfunction.

To achieve an optimal level, you need at least 50 IUs of vitamin E daily. The recommended dietary allowance for anyone 14 years or older is 15 milligrams (mg) per day. Vitamin E is well-known for protecting against free radical damage and the effects of aging. It is actually a family of at least eight fat-soluble antioxidant compounds, divided into two main categories:

  • Tocopherols, which are considered the “true” vitamin E
  • Tocotrienols, each of which has subfamilies of four different forms
  • Vitamin E can easily be obtained from a healthy diet, and high amounts of it are found in three general categories of foods:
  • Leafy greens like spinach
  • High-fat foods such as nuts, seeds, fatty fish and seafood, including sardines and shrimp
  • Oil-rich, high-fat plants such as avocados and olives

Most of these foods are best eaten raw because cooking will destroy some of the nutrients. Obvious exceptions exist of course — do not eat raw shrimp, for example. If you must use a supplement, choose a full-spectrum vitamin E containing mixed natural tocopherols and tocotrienols.

No. 8:  Vitamin K2

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is well-known for its role in blood clotting. However, there are two different kinds of vitamin K. Vitamin K1 is primarily responsible for blood clotting whereas Vitamin K2 works synergistically to impart a number of important health benefits.

If you do not have sufficient amounts of vitamin K2, you run the risk of both brittle bones and calcification in your soft tissues. In other words, vitamin K2 is necessary to keep your bones strong and your soft tissues pliable. A number of Japanese trials have shown that vitamin K2 completely reverses bone loss and in some cases even increases bone mass in people with osteoporosis.

No. 9: Selenium

Selenium serves two very important and interrelated roles:

  1. At the cellular level, selenium is an active component of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water. Glutathione peroxidase has potent antioxidant properties, and serves as a first line of defense against build-up of harmful free radicals in your cells.
  2. Selenium also plays an important role in the prevention of cancer. One of the reasons people get cancer is because of excessive free radical production. By reducing free radicals, selenium helps reduce your risk of cancer.

If you like Brazil nuts, eating about two to three of them per day will typically be sufficient. If you opt for a supplement, make sure to get the correct form. What you’re looking for is the high-selenium yeast form, the scientifically tested and most recommended version.

No. 10: Vitamin A

Nearly half of American adults and teens are at risk for insufficiency or deficiency of Vitamin A. Your body needs a daily dose of this fat-soluble vitamin to maintain healthy bones, cell membranes, immune function, skin, teeth and vision. Vitamins A and D work in tandem, and there’s evidence suggesting that without vitamin D, vitamin A can be ineffective or even toxic.

On the other hand, if you’re deficient in vitamin A, vitamin D cannot function properly either, so a balance of these two vitamins is essential to good health. That said, because we do not yet know the optimal ratios between these two vitamins, balancing them well through supplementation can be challenging. For that reason, if you are able, it’s best to intake vitamins A and D from food and sun exposure, rather than supplements.

The best source of vitamin A your body can actually use is animal products such as fish, grass fed meat, liver and pastured poultry, as well as raw, organic dairy products like butter. These foods contain retinol, preformed vitamin A that your body can easily use.


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